La maxim signifianta chanji inter la Klasikala Latina e la Pra-Latinida (e do di omna Latinida lingui) rilatas al redukto e perdo dil Latinia kazala sistemo, e la korespondanta sintaktikala chanji qua esis prenita.
La kazala sistemo esis
reduktita ek la sis-kazala sistemo dil Latino. Quankam quar kazi povas kontrustesar por Pra-Latinida nomi (nominativo, akuzativo, genitivo e dativo kombinita e vokativo), la vokativo esas marginala e prizentas en la Rumaniana (ube ol esus kompleta novigo), e por la restita kazi, ne plus di du esa prizenta en nula linguo.
La kazala sistemo esis '''drastically''' reduktita ek la sis-kazala sistemo dil Latino. Quankam quar kazi povas kontrustesar por Pra-Latinida nomi (nominativo, akuzativo, genitivo e dativo kombinita e vokativo), la vokativo esas marginala e prizentas en la Rumaniana (ube ol esus kompleta novigo), e por la restita kazi, ne plus di du esa prizenta en nula linguo.
Romanian is the only modern Romance language with case marking on nouns, with a two-way opposition between nominative/accusative and genitive/dative. Some of the older [[Gallo-Romance languages]] (in particular, [[Old French]], [[Old Occitan]], [[Sursilvan dialects (Romansh)|Old Sursilvan]] and [[Friulian language|Old Friulian]], and in traces [[Catalan language|Old Catalan]] and [[Venetan language|Old Venetan]]) had an opposition between nominative and general oblique, and in Ibero-Romance languages, such as Hispanian and Portuguese, as well as in Italian (see under [[#Case|Case]]), a couple of examples are found which preserve the old nominative (though some of them may be influenced by Latin) and indicate that they formerly had this opposition, as well.<!-- Isn't the name Hispana/Portuguese ''Carlos'', Catalan ''Carles'', French ''Charles'' a good example which preserves the old nominative form until the present day?
The system of multiple noun declensions was also dramatically reduced; most modern languages have only three types (masculine ''-o'', feminine ''-a'', and an ''-e'' that can be either gender). As in English, case is preserved better on pronouns than elsewhere, with some pronouns marked for as many as four cases (nominative, accusative, dative, genitive) plus additional possessive and [[disjunctive pronoun|disjunctive]] forms.
Concomitant with the loss of cases, freedom of word order was greatly reduced. Classical Latin had a generally verb-final (SOV) but overall quite free word order, with a significant amount of [[scrambling (syntax)|word scrambling]] and mixing of [[left-branching]] and [[right-branching]] constructions. The Romance languages eliminated word scrambling and nearly all left-branching constructions, with most languages developing a rigid SVO, right-branching syntax. ([[Old French]], however, had a freer word order due to the two-case system still present, as well as a predominantly [[V2 word order|verb-second word order]] developed under the influence of the [[Germanic languages]].)
Ula libereso, quamkan, permesesas en la lokado di adjektivi relative a lia ''head noun''. Pluse, ula lingui (exemple Hispana o Rumaniana) havas "akuzativa prepoziciono" (Rumaniana ''pe'', Hispana "personal ''a''") apud ''clitic doubling'', quo permesas ula libereso en ordinado di ''arguments of a verb''.
Latinida lingui developis gramatikal artikkli ube Latino ne havis. Articles are often introduced around the time a robust case system falls apart in order to disambiguate the remaining case markers (which are usually too ambiguous by themselves) and to serve as parsing clues that signal the presence of a noun (a function formerly served by the case endings themselves).
This was the pattern followed by the Romance languages: In the Romance languages that still preserved a functioning nominal case system (e.g. Romanian and Old French), only the combination of article and case ending serves to uniquely identify number and case (compare the similar situation in modern [[German language|German]]). All Romance languages have a definite article (originally developed from ''ipse'' "self" but replaced in nearly all languages by ''ille'' "that (over there)") and an indefinite article (developed from ''ūnus'' "one"). Many also have a [[partitive article]] (''dē'' "of" + definite article).
Latin had a large number of syntactic constructions expressed through infinitives, participles, and similar nominal constructs. Examples are the [[ablative absolute]], the accusative-plus-infinitive construction used for [[reported speech]], [[gerundive]] constructions, and the common use of [[reduced relative clause]]s expressed through participles. All of these are replaced in the Romance languages by subordinate clauses expressed with finite verbs, making the Romance languages much more "verbal" and less "nominal" than Latin. Under the influence of the [[Balkan sprachbund]], Romanian has progressed the furthest, largely eliminating the infinitive. (It is currently being revived, however, due to the increasing influence of other Romance languages.)
== Linguistikala traiti ==